A complete overview of technical definitions, with references to posts and external resources.
Ever wondered what that word means? Here you can find out and read all about it!

Activated CarbonActivated Carbon (AC) is a type of carbon structure with very high porosity, both at macro and at micro level. This structure gives it the ability to adsorb pollutants from fluid media like air and water. See our detailed post on Activated Carbon for more information!
Centrifugal PumpA pump type often used in the water industry. This type of pump uses curved vanes to accelerate the water from the centre of the pump to the outside of the vanes, causing a pressure difference and thus a flow of water. Highly effective for water displacement and pressurisation, but not to draw water up from a reservoir. Main article HERE.
ClarificationRemoval of pollutants from (waste)water that mainly infuence the clarity of the water, i.e. suspended solids, oils, and particulate matter. This is usually not used to remove dissolved solids, meaning discoloration of the clarified water is still possible.
ChlorinationThe addition of chlorine to treated drinking water to oxidise any remaining biological substances such as bacteria, and prevent the growth of new bacteria before the water reaches the user. Also called chloramination if chloramine is used which is a more stable oxidation agent.
Dissolved Air Flotation – DAFClarification technology using very small bubbles (up to 50 μm) that is highly effective at removing oils and fats from wastewater, as well as smaller solid particles. Main article HERE.
FiltrationRemoval of material from a medium, e.g. removal of sand particle from water. In the water industry this is normally only used to refer to the removal of particle or molecules from water, not for technologies such as ion exchange.
FlocculationFormation of larger particles called ‘flocs’ from smaller particles such as sand and organic matter. Usually done using alumium salts, iron salts, or polymers. Mentioned in our main water treatment article.
Ion ExchangeWater treatment technology used mainly for the removal of smaller ions or molecules from water, such as medicines, pesticides, and metal ions.
Membrane(in engineering context): A thin sheet of material that lets through almost exclusively one certain type of molecule, e.g. water and other polar molecules (such as alchohols).
OzonationThe use of ozone, often in drinking water treatment, to oxidise organic molecules and metallic ions that remain in the water after the main treatment. Mentioned in our main water treatment article.
Reverse OsmosisReverse Osmosis (RO) is a type of water filtration method in which a thin, semi-permeable membrane is used to push water under high pressure through the membrane layer. This leaves behind any dissolved particles like salts and impurities. See our detailed post on Reverse Osmosis for more information!
SuDSSustainable Drainage System; a type of drainage facility that uses natural ecosystem elements to retain rain water and allow it to infiltrate the soil, rather than have it run off into rivers, lakes, or sewage systems.